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The Paris Agreement was open for signature from April 22, 2016 to April 21, 2017. In accordance with Article 21, paragraph 1, it came into force on 4 November 2016, the 30th day following the tabling of their instruments for ratification, acceptance, approval or accession by at least 55 parties, estimated at 55% of total greenhouse gas emissions. By quantifying the damage done to society by CO2 pollution, Trump sees America as an island apart – and we all know what climate change is doing to the islands. The agreement recognizes the role of non-partisan stakeholders in the fight against climate change, including cities, other sub-national authorities, civil society, the private sector and others. Negotiations on the Paris Agreement began in Durban, South Africa at COP17, with the establishment of the ad hoc working group on the Durban Platform on Enhanced Measures, commonly known as the Durban Platform, in which the parties to the UNFCCC agreed to establish a working group at COP21 (Paris Conference) by 2015 , in order to negotiate “another legal instrument or an agreed-upon outcome with a measure of measure” and to enter into force by 2020. In response to the climate challenge, the agreement recognizes that states have common but differentiated responsibilities, i.e. according to their national capabilities and specificities. Unlike the Kyoto Protocol, which set legally binding emission reduction targets (as well as penalties for non-compliance) only for industrialized countries, the Paris Agreement requires all countries – rich, poor, developed and developing – to take their share and reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. To this end, the Paris Agreement provides for greater flexibility: commitments that countries should make are not included, countries can voluntarily set their emissions targets and countries will not be penalized if they do not meet their proposed targets. But what the Paris agreement requires is to monitor, report and reassess, over time, the objectives of individual and collective countries, in order to bring the world closer to the broader objectives of the agreement. And the agreement stipulates that countries must announce their next round of targets every five years, contrary to the Kyoto Protocol, which was aimed at this target but which contained no specific requirements to achieve this goal.

Under the Paris Agreement, each country must define, plan and report regularly on its contribution to the fight against global warming. [6] There is no mechanism for a country[7] to set an emission target for a specified date,[8] but any target should go beyond the previous targets. The United States formally withdrew from the agreement the day after the 2020 presidential election,[9] although President-elect Joe Biden said America would return to the agreement after his inauguration. [10] Currently, 197 countries – each nation on earth, the last signatory being war-torn Syria – have adopted the Paris Agreement. 179 of them have consolidated their climate proposals with official approval, including, for the time being, the United States.

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