Technical barriers to CTA trade covered by the WTO agreement on technical barriers to trade. References to the previous GATT agreement with the same name are referred to as the “1979 TBT Agreement”, which benefits from the implementation of the SPS agreement? Is the agreement in the interest of developing countries? Member States are invited to apply international standards, guidelines and recommendations, if necessary. However, members may take steps leading to higher standards for scientific reasons. They can also set higher standards on the basis of an appropriate risk assessment, provided the approach is consistent and not arbitrary. 2. Health or plant health measures in accordance with international standards, guidelines or recommendations are considered necessary to protect the life or health of people, animals or plants and are deemed to be in accordance with the relevant provisions of this agreement and the 1994 GATT. In accordance with this agreement, members are fully responsible for meeting all of the commitments set out in this agreement. Members formulate and suspend positive measures and mechanisms to support compliance with the provisions of this agreement by entities other than the seats of central government. Members take appropriate measures at their disposal to ensure that non-governmental organizations located on their territory and regional entities to which the competent authorities on their territory are parties comply with the relevant provisions of this agreement. In addition, members do not take any action that directly or indirectly obliges these regional or non-governmental authorities or local authorities to act in a manner inconsistent with the provisions of this agreement. Members ensure that they rely on the services of non-governmental organizations to implement health or plant health measures only if they comply with the provisions of this agreement. The SPS agreement was intended to fill this potential gap.

It establishes clearer and more detailed rights and obligations on food security and measures for animal and plant health that affect trade. Countries are allowed to set only the requirements necessary for health protection and based on scientific principles. A government may challenge other countries on food safety or veterinary and plant health requirements on the grounds that they are not supported by scientific evidence. Procedures and decisions taken by a country to assess the risk to food or animal safety or plant health must be made available to other countries upon request. Governments must be consistent in their food safety decisions and in addressing human and animal health concerns. All countries maintain measures to ensure that food is safe consumers for consumers and to prevent the spread of pests or diseases among animals and plants.