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The world is complex. The World Trade Organization is complex. This brochure is brief, but it attempts to reflect the complex and dynamic nature of trade and WTO trade rules. It emphasizes the benefits of the trading system, but it does not pretend that everything is perfect. If it is a perfect system, it would not be necessary to continue negotiations and to continue the development and reform of the system. Improving market access for the poorest developing countries would give them the means to use trade for development and the fight against poverty. Giving the poorest countries duty-free and quota-free access to global markets would have little cost to the rest of the world. Recent market opening initiatives in the EU and some other countries are important in this regard.10 To be absolutely effective, this access should be sustainable, extended to all products and accompanied by simple and transparent rules of origin. This would give the poorest countries the confidence to stick to difficult internal reforms and ensure effective use of debt relief and aid flows. The failure to open a new round of multilateral trade negotiations at the 1999 WTO conference in Seattle was a setback for the international trading system. Such large-scale multilateral negotiations are particularly important because they provide countries with the opportunity to obtain visible benefits for their exporters from the opening of markets by other countries.

This perspective provides more incentives for countries to open their own markets and overcome the resistance of entrenched, protected interests. In this way, the trade liberalisation packages that are under way for these negotiations will ensure that they benefit all participating countries. The effects of GATT/WTO membership are generally appreciated in empirical gravity models, introducing a model variable indicating whether both countries are GATT/WTO members. According to economic theory (1), the growth in trade volume resulting from GATT/WTO membership is influenced by the depth of the membership country`s commitments; and (2) GATT/WTO membership diverts trade from other non-GATT/WTO countries, if necessary. For Belarus, WTO membership will bring additional benefits. Membership pays off: the United States, China and Germany are the countries that benefit the most from their WTO membership. They get by far the largest increases in revenue directly attributable to their membership in the business organization. The World Trade Organization (WTO) has 164 members representing the majority of the world`s 195 members. They joined us in taking advantage of the benefits of greater wto-led international trade.

From 2019, the WTO has 164 members and another 22 are currently negotiating their membership. For many of these members, membership of the GATT and the WTO required significant changes in their domestic and trade policy. In addition to binding tariffs and reductions, WTO membership includes obligations on non-tariff barriers and transparency. These benefits are all the more important because, even with the explosion of regional trade agreements (ATRs) in recent years, 75% of world merchandise trade still takes place on a non-discriminatory nation`s most favoured (MFN) basis. In most cases, this rate also applies to third countries. The central role of the multilateral system in supporting and anchoring the growth of world trade is often underestimated or overlooked in some journalistic and academic circles.

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